Thursday, May 21, 2020
Mary Daly, raised in a Catholic home and sent to Catholic schools throughout her childhood, pursued philosophy and then theology in college. When Catholic University would not permit her, as a woman, to study theology for a doctorate, she found a small womens college that did offer a Ph.D. in theology. After working for a few years as an instructor at Cardinal Cushing College, Daly went to Switzerland to study theology there, and get another Ph.D. While pursuing her degrees at the University of Fribourg, she taught in the Junior Year Abroad program for American students. Returning to the United States, Mary Daly was hired as an assistant professor of theology by Boston College. Controversy followed publication of her 1968 book, The Church and the Second Sex: Towards a Philosophy of Womens Liberation, and the college tried to fire Mary Daly but was forced to re-hire her when presented a student petition signed by 2,500. Mary Daly was promoted to associate professor of theology in 1969, a tenured position. As her books moved her further and further outside the circle of Catholicism and Christianity, the college denied Daly promotions to full professor in 1974 and again in 1989. Policy of Refusing to Admit Men to Classes The college objected to Dalys policy of refusing to admit men to her feminist ethics classes, though she offered to teach men individually and privately. She received five warnings about this practice from the college. In 1999, a suit on behalf of senior Duane Naquin, backed by the Center for Individual Rights, led to her dismissal. NaquinÃ had not taken the prerequisite womens studies course tried to register, and was told by Daly that he could take the course with her individually. This student was supported by the Center for Individual Rights, an organization that opposes Title IX, and one tactic used is to file lawsuits applying Title IX to male students. In 1999, facing this lawsuit, Boston College terminated Mary Dalys contract as a tenured professor. She and her supporters filed a lawsuit and requested an injunction against the firing, on the grounds that due process had not been followed. In February 2001, Boston College and Mary Dalys supporters announced that Daly hadÃ settled out of court with Boston College,Ã thus taking the case out of the hands of the court and judge. She did not return to teaching, officially ending her professorship there in 2001. Mary Daly published her account of this fight in her 2006 book, Amazing Grace: Re-calling the Courage to Sin Big.Ã Transsexual Issues Mary Dalys take on transsexualism in her 1978 bookÃ Gyn/EcologyÃ is frequently quoted by radical feminists who do not support including male-to-female transsexuals as women: Transsexualism is an example of male surgical siring which invades the female world with substitutes. Fast Facts Known for: Increasingly strong critique of patriarchy in religion and society; dispute with Boston College over the admission of men to her classes on feminist ethicsOccupation: Feminist theologian, theologian, philosopher, post-Christian, radical feminist Pirate (her description)Religion: Roman Catholic, post-Christian, radical feministDates: October 16, 1928 - January 3, 2010 Family Father: Frank X. DalyMother: Anna Catherine Daly Education Catholic schools through high schoolSt. Rose, B.A., 1950Catholic University, M.A., 1942St. Marys College, Notre Dame, Indiana, Ph.D., theology, 1954University of Fribourg, S.T.D., 1963; Ph.D. 1965 Career 1952-54: St. Marys College, visiting lecturer, English1954-59: Cardinal Cushing College, Brookline, MA, instructor in philosophy and theology1959-66: Fribourg University, Junior Year Abroad program for American students, teacher of philosophy and theology1966-1969: Boston College, assistant professor1969-2001: Boston College, associate professor of theology Books 1966: Natural Knowledge of God in the Philosophy of Jacques Maritan1968: The Church and the Second Sex: Toward a Philosophy of Womens Liberation1973: Beyond God the Father1975: Rape Culture, a screenplay with Emily Culpeper1978: Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism1984: Pure Lust: Elemental Philosophy1987: Websters First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the English Language with Jane Caputi1992: Outercourse: The Be-Dazzling Voyage: Containing Recollections from My Logbook as a Radical Feminist Philosopher1998: Quintessence: Realizing the Outrageous, Contagious Courage of Women2006: Amazing Grace: Re-calling the Courage to Sin Big
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Maggie Schmidt Ã¢â¬ ¢ A Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway (born on July 21,1899 and died on July 2,1961) He was raised in Chicago, and he moved to Paris after marriage. Hemingway contributed to literature during his time by writing for his high school newspaper and later became a journalist for Kansas City Star. He also became a companion of a lot of successful writers with Gertrude Stein teaching him. (Ã¢â¬Å"Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬ Biography.com) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Original publication- September 1929 (Ã¢â¬Å"Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬ Biography.com) Ã¢â¬ ¢ The reader must understand what goes on with the war so they can better understand the characters emotions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Setting Ã¢â¬â Italy, time of World War I Ã¢â¬ ¢ First person point of view Ã¢â¬ ¢ The theme is the reality of war and how it effectsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Valentini- doctor that agrees to operating on HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s knee so that he does not have to be in bed for six months Ã¢â¬ ¢ Priest- tries to help Henry find his spiritual life Ã¢â¬ ¢ Catherine Barkley- fiancÃ © died; British nurse; falls in love with Henry Ã¢â¬ ¢ The war is the antagonist of the novel Ã¢â¬ ¢ Symbol 1- Hair represents Catherine and HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship; Henry fell in love with CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s beautiful blonde hair when he saw her. Catherine told Henry to grow a beard to change something in his life, and then she wants to cut her hair short to be more like him. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Symbol 2- Bad weather represents death. For example, in the beginning of the novel rain brings cholera which kills many men in the army. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Motif 1- deception of love- Henry tells Catherine he loves her as soon as they meet. This is not real love, it is just a game in the beginning. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Motif 2- alcohol- Alcohol is used in many cases such as for defense against the pain that comes with the war. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quote 1- Ã¢â¬Å"You must have done something heroic either before or after. Remember carefully.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I did not.Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway 55). This quote shows an example of HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s honesty, and how he does not expect reward or medals for what he does in the war. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quote 2- Ã¢â¬Å"It might be nice short. Then weÃ¢â¬â¢d both be alike. Oh, darling, I want you so much I want to be you too.Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway 257). This quote shows an example of how hair can symbolize how CatherineShow MoreRelatedAnalysis On The Farewell Of Arms By Ernest Hemingway1101 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe book I chose to do my analysis on was A Farewell to Arms, written by Ernest Hemingway in 1929. It has a first person narrative and is told by American ambulance driver Frederic Henry who finds love in the form of a nurse named Catherine Barkley all while the first world war is happening in the background. The story almost serves as a biographical piece on Hemingway himself as many of the events and experiences in it are inspired by real life ones that affected him. He did fight in World War 1Read MoreA Farewell To Arms By Ernest Hemingway Analysis1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslives the way they wish they could. One example of this is in Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s nov el, A Farewell To Arms. The brave World War One ambulance driver, Frederic Henry, shares many traits with the esteemed author. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost like heÃ¢â¬â¢s the Batman to HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s Bruce Wayne. Hemingway often wrote from experience, whether it was drawing upon his experience at a bullfight or even writing about his time spent on the Italian front (Ernest Hemingway Biography ~ World War I 1). He shares several experiencesRead MoreA Farewell To Arms By Ernest Hemingway Analysis1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbut their lives were endangered as if they had no value or purpose. In the novel, A Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway explores the hardships of the war through an ambulance driver in World War I referred to as Lieutenant Henry. Lieutenant Henry sees and experiences many things in his war experience, but overall comes back to the same realization: there is not much meaning in life. Throughout the novel, Hemingway teaches the reader that life is meaningless through the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships withRead MoreAnalysis Of Ernest Hemingway s A Farewell Of Arms 1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof courage, glory, and selflessness. A Farewell to Arms, written by Ernest Hemingway, i s a recollection of his war experiences. The protagonist, an American Lieutenant named Fredric Henry, struggles to find the middle ground between his affair with the beautiful and radiant Catherine Barkley and pursuing heroism in the Great War. The loversÃ¢â¬â¢ lives are turned upside-down once they realize they are infatuated with each other. Like Lieutenant Henry, when Hemingway was Ã¢â¬Å"serving at the front, he was woundedRead MoreAnalysis Of Ernest Hemingway s A Farewell Of Arms 1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswar cannot overcome the bond between lovers. However, Ernest Hemingway contrasts this version of war and love in his novel, A Farewell to Arms. He utilizes his past experiences in World War I to illustrate warfare from the perspective of a soldier on the front lines. His novel portrays romance in a negative light, showing an alternative result of love, rather than the clichÃ © Ã¢â¬Å"happily ever afterÃ¢â¬ endings. In A Farewell to Arms, Hemingway suggests that lov e can only serve as a temporary haven inRead MoreAnalysis Of Ernest Hemingway s The A Farewell Of Arms 988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Farewell to Arms - Modernism In the A Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway incorporates a literary style known as Modernism. Literary Modernism, or Modernist literature, had its origin in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The horrors of World War I perceived, were taken into consideration by Modernists as the prevailing assumptions about society were reassessed. Thinkers such as Sigmund Freud began questioning the rationality of mankind. Hemingway includes perspectivism, impressionism, andRead MoreNot Only Did The Effects Of War Negatively Influence HenryÃ¢â¬â¢S1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNot only did the effects of war negatively influence HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, the theme of tragedy and the horrors of war also influence the entire Italian Army. For example, in ModdelmogÃ¢â¬â¢s literary analysis, the author refers back to novel to discuss the temptations that are depicted by Hemingway to give an accurate representation of the daily lives of the soldiers and the author hints at a justification for their actions: Ã¢â¬Å"It might sound sordid, but during war who can blame soldiers for seeking pleasurableRead MoreThe Sentimental Education of Frederic Henry (HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s Other Possible Title)975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist Frederic Henry says A Farewell to Arms with a double meaning. The novel title is word play reflective of first, FredericÃ¢â¬â¢s desertion of the war. His second farewell is to the arms of his beloved, Catherine Barkley after her death in childbirth. Wandering stoically through life, looking for some natural progression, Frederic lets one circumstance lead him to the next. At first, Frederic exhibits the hedonistic aspirations of a college fraternity pledge, motivatedRead MoreCoping with War: A Comparison Between Slaughterhouse Five and A Farewell to Arms1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEarnest Hemmingway once said Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a crime. (Ernest Hemingway: A Literary Reference) War is a gruesome and tragic thing and affects people differently. Both Vonnegut and Hemmingway discus this idea in their novels A Farewell to Arms and Slaughterhouse Five. Both of the novels deal not only with war stories but other genres, be it a science fiction story in VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s case or a love story in HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s. Despite all the similaritiesRead MorePsychoanalytic and Femisnist Theories in A Farewall to Arms by Ernst Hemingway2059 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Farewell to ArmsÃ¢â¬ written by Ernest Hemingway in 1929 attracted much critical acclaim and theoretical interpretation helping to understand the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s message to the readers the overall importance of the literary work in the world. The events of the novel took place during the First World War in Italy revolving around Frederic Henry, an American ambulance driver working for the Italian Army and being wounded on the front. Another very important character in the novel was Catherine Barkley, the
string(232) " with her stick and shouted Ã¢â¬Å"Off to the pigsty and lie down with your friendsÃ¢â¬ , so I snatched up my sword and rushed at her as if I meant to kill her, she slipped beneath my blade, grabbed my knees and burst into tears\." We arrived two days ago on this island from Telepyus, Land of the Laestrygonians with heavy hearts, grieving for the loss of our dear comrades. In our sorrow we lay on the shore for two days and two nights, wailing and crying at the pain and anguish we felt for our lost companions. But now I feel that I have to move for the sake of my remaining crew, otherwise I believe we will stay here forever, wallowing in our grief. We will write a custom essay sample on Captains Log or any similar topic only for you Order Now I am going to leave the men here while set off alone to explore, it would be pointless trying to make the men move now. Half of the crew and myself are now sat on the beach, awaiting the return of the other half of the crew. After my last entry I set off and came to a rocky height and as I became close to the top of it I could see a cloud of reddish smoke rising, as I got closer and closer to the top I saw that it was coming from the chimney of a house in the distance. I was unsure of how I felt at the sight, I was left in two minds, whether to press on forwards and investigate or not. After some deep thought I made the decision n to go back to the shore and try to find some food on the way, the welfare of my men must come first, I would then split the men in to two halves and leave half on the shore and the I would send the other half to explore the island I think that it is best to only let half go incase of any danger, that way if any crew are lost it will only be half or less. I cannot risk loosing any more crew after what happened with Antiphates and the Cyclops. On my way back the Gods must have been in my favour because I came across I stag, which I managed to kill and although it was a brute of a thing I could just manage to put it over my shoulder and drag it back to the shore where I greeted my men warmly and we ate the meal. The meal did seem to boost their morale, which is what I had hoped; I hoped that it might encourage them that we were going to be fine. After we ate we slept and this morning half of the men set off to explore led by Eurylochus. Eurylochus returned alone, claiming that the rest of the men were turned into pigs by a witch named Circe. He told me that when he and his men had reached the Palace of Circe they had heard a beautiful voice singing while working on a loom, one man had said that whoever was inside must have been either a Goddess or woman, she called out to them and invited them inside. But Eurylochus, being a very suspicious man, suspected a trap and did not go in, so Polites led the men and in their innocence they followed him inside. Then he told me that the men had been fed and given drinks of yellow honey with Pramnian wine which she tipped with a noxious drug. The men were then herded into a pigsty and fed acorns and forest nuts, they grunted like pigs but their minds were as human as before, but with no memory of their native land because of the drug. After hearing this news I threw my sword in its silver scabbard over my shoulder and grabbed my bow and told Eurylochus to take me back with him by the same way he had come. But he threw his arms around my knees and begged me to let him stay where he was, so I let him stay because if I had pursued my order, it may have caused a mutiny because he would have disobeyed my order making me look like a bad leader, or and the rest of the crew may have been swayed to the point of view that I had bad judgement , after all my judgement wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t always perfect, I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been very cautious where the Cyclopes and Laestrygonians had been concerned and perhaps it may have been better if I had have been. So I let him stay and kept up a better image rather than risk looking unkind and uncompassionate. But although Eurylochus will no be coming with me I still have to go on because I cannot loose any more men, so I am going on alone to retrieve my comrades, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll set off now. I have just returned back to the beach after my encounter with Circe. Soon after leaving the shore I was surprised to meet up with Hermes, who told me that I should eat a special herb called Moly which would stop CirceÃ¢â¬â¢s powers affecting me. He then instructed me to go on to the palace and accept CirceÃ¢â¬â¢s offerings, but when she strikes me with her stick I should rush at her with intent to kill her and she will beg for me to go to her bed. He said that if I slept with her she might rob me of my courage and manhood so I should get her to swear an oath before hand so that she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t, and that after I had been in bed with her she would let my men go. I ate the herb and then went on to the palace and when I got outside I called to her and she let me in and fed me and then she offered me a goblet of yellow looking honeyed wine, but I knew that it was drugged, and just like Hermes had told me I drank it and it had no effect thanks to the Moly. Next she hit me with her stick and shouted Ã¢â¬Å"Off to the pigsty and lie down with your friendsÃ¢â¬ , so I snatched up my sword and rushed at her as if I meant to kill her, she slipped beneath my blade, grabbed my knees and burst into tears. You read "Captains Log" in category "Papers" She then asked me who I was and where I came from but before I could answer she said that I must be Odysseus because Hermes had once told her that a man named Odysseus would come to her palace and suffer no effects from her drug. She then asked me to join her in her bed and get to trust each other. I could not deny a Goddess, and it was for the sake of my crew, Hermes had told me to accept this offer and although I could not help but think about my wife in Ithaca I knew that to get back home to her I would have to sleep with Circe, so I followed her to her bed, but not before getting her to swear a solemn oath that while they were in bed she should not rob me of my courage and manhood. After I had slept with Circe she told me to return to the shore and collect my men and bring them back to the palace so she could offer them food, drink and fresh clothes, and she let the men out of the sty and turned them back. I got to the shore and told my men the good news, that their friends were now human again and that we all had a feast waiting for us at CirceÃ¢â¬â¢s palace. But Eurylochus did not take this as good news; he told the men not to trust me and said that I had almost cost them their lives before and that it was my fault we had lost so many men before as it was me who always led the men into danger, like when I made the men go into the Cyclops cave and stay there, and when I lost the men on the Land of the Laestrygonians. I was so enraged by his defiant outburst I considered drawing my sword and lopping his head off there and then but my men held me back and calmed me down. They said that they would come with me and Eurylochus could stay with the ship if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to come, however he came anyway, if only through fear but we all knew that he was terrified of CirceÃ¢â¬â¢s Palace too. So now we are all going ahead to CirceÃ¢â¬â¢s Palace, although my blood is still boiling over what Eurylochus said. I have just had the most difficult day of my journey so far, for after I collected my men and took them to the Palace of Circe, after some persuasion we when to the Palace where the two partied of men met and cried in joy at the sight of each other and we stayed there and ate and drank and bathed and rested for a whole year. It was so relieving to be able to rest and relax that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realise that weÃ¢â¬â¢d stayed that long, until the men came to me today and reminded me that we should be on our way because they wanted to get home. I felt like a bad leader for getting so engrossed with this lifestyle that I forgot about their feelings and the time. We feasted for the rest of the day and then as night fell I went to Circe and clasped her knees in supplication and I told her what I felt and how the men felt and asked her to keep the promise she had once made me about sending me home. That is when she told me this dreadful news; to get home I must first go down to the underworld, into the Halls of Hades and consult the soul of Teiresias, who was the only person who could tell me the way home. These terrible words struck me hard and my heart sank, I felt like I had no more reasons for living. But If I ever wanted to return home I had to do this, it was heart breaking but it had to be done. What would be worse was that I would have to tell the crew. I found out from Circe that I would have to set up my mast and wait for the north wind to blow my ship on its way, she said I would come to a wild coast and PersephoneÃ¢â¬â¢s Grove, I should go to the specific place she stated then dig a trench as long and wide as a mans forearm, I should go round the trench and pour offerings to the dead and after that I should sprinkle white barley and begin my prayers and make Teiresias a separate offering of a the finest jet black sheep of my flock. Then there would be more sacrifices of a ewe and ram and pray some more until I would be able to talk to Teiresias who could give me a route home. As if this news hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been hard enough I now had to tell my comrades the same thing and get them to agree. Then one of the younger men who had gotten drunk last night herd me calling the men to wake up and he leapt up and fell off the roof and broke his neck and went straight to Hades. Then I broke the news to the men, it was so had to tell them but I had to do it or we will never be able to return to our beloved homes. When I told them they were broken hearted and deeply upset and Circe put the animals for the sacrifice on the ship for me. The men have agreed to go on the next step of our journey home; I just hope that we will prevail. How to cite Captains Log, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Romantic Elements in BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Waldstein Sonata Paper Romantic Elements in BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Waldstein Sonata (#21, Op 53) As the length of sonatas grew under pens such as Beethoven, the free exercise of many layers of musical contrast kept the longer works fresh and palatable. This sonata doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have as bold of contrasts as BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s later works, but they still exist. The first movement starts with a quiet intro that swells with excitement at measure 11, only to calm back to a quiet simmering two measures later. As a middle period sonata, the dynamics do not switch as violently as is common in the later nineteenth century, but the range of dynamics still exist even if they have smooth crescendo and diminuendo transitions. The mood within the each movements is a little manic for this period. Departing from the unity of tone frequent with sonatas, the first movement has at least three distinct mood: an excited first theme, a quirky transition, a noble second theme. The second and third piece slide from introspective to heroic. This assortment is common in symphonic and operatic works, and for Beethoven to extend this to the sonata form is significant. The second movement is very short and serves as a smooth transition toward the third movement. This also represents the growing break in the three movement structure. Gravity pulls towards the two outer movements, and in practicallity, the second movement is the first 27 bars of the Rondo movement, ending on an fermata over a G before going into the second C major work. We will write a custom essay sample on Romantic Elements in BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Waldstein Sonata specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Romantic Elements in BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Waldstein Sonata specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Romantic Elements in BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s Waldstein Sonata specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Every resource on this sonata states that Beethoven removed the original second movement to keep the work more coherent and concise, perserving the removed work as a stand alone piano piece The ability and need to break tradition is a strong romantic value. Beethoven also breaks the classical sonata tradition of having the second theme in the dominant by going from C major to E major to the second (Measure 35). The key changes of a third, which is a very popular destination during the romantic period as the tonic to dominant key change was being played out. 1 Though not programatic, Beethoven still calls for unique textures to be performed. Measures 99-100 of the first movement call for specific instruments, the trumpet, flute, clarinet and oboe, to be emulated through the piano, stretching the boundaries of the instrument to include mannerisms and perhaps timbre. * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sonata_form (C major to E major)
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Massacre in El Mozote as Told by Mark Danner Essays The Massacre in El Mozote as Told by Mark Danner Paper The Massacre in El Mozote as Told by Mark Danner Paper The Massacre at El Mozote as told by Mark Danner takes place El Salvador. El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America. It shares borders with Guatemala and Honduras. El Salvador is divided into 14 departments and El Mozote is a village in one of the Departments called Morazan. According to the author, the Salvadoran Civil War 1979-1992 was a conflict waged by the Military led Government of El Salvador and coalition of left-leaning militias or guerillas called the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN). The FMLN was supported by peasants and indigenous Indian people. The United States supported the El Salvador Military government. The tensions between the classes, the halves and the halve-nots are therefore represented by the two warring factions. The harrowing events in Mark DannerÃ¢â¬â¢s Massacre at El Mozote investigates and questions three central issues; the Massacre, the role of American Policies in the region during the Cold War and the executive cover-up of the events as Propaganda. One of the concerns is what responsibility (if any) did the U. S. government have for the massacre at El Mozote? El Mozote was Ã¢â¬Å"uniquelyÃ¢â¬ different from most villages because it had resisted the Liberation Theology taught by left-leaning Catholic Priests and according to the author was Ã¢â¬Å"as as stronghold of the Protestant evangelical movementÃ¢â¬ (pg 19) . The villagers of El Mozote had their own chapel and referred themselves as born-again Christians and as Danner states were known for Ã¢â¬Å"their anti-communismÃ¢â¬ (pg 19). The villagers of El Mozote did not support the guerillas. According to Danner the Massacre at El Mozote takes place when American trained Salvadoran Armed forces called the Atlacatl Batallion arrived at the village and began systematically killing men, women and children by various means such as torturing, hangings, decapitation, and shooting. The U. S government was responsible for the massacre at El Mozote for a plethora of reasons. First, The Reagan administration was well aware of the geopolitical consequences of ceding El Salvador to Ã¢â¬Å"communist subversion in the hemisphereÃ¢â¬ (pg 40). Also, the growing presence of the Soviets and Cuba in Nicaragua escalated the cold war and in order to Ã¢â¬Ëdraw the lineÃ¢â¬ the Reagan administration Ã¢â¬Å"doubled economic aid for El Salvador to a hundred and forty four million dollarsÃ¢â¬ (pg 40). According to Danner, Ã¢â¬Å"the priorities of American Policy in El Salvador had become unmistakableÃ¢â¬ (pg 41). Second, The American government was Ã¢â¬Å"opposed to dispatching American combat forces to Central AmericaÃ¢â¬ (pg 22) and in order to prevent another Nicaragua, Congress agreed to Ã¢â¬Å"reformÃ¢â¬ the Salvadoran Army by financing, training and arming its troops to fight the FMLN. As Danner notes, Ã¢â¬Å"the Americans had stepped forward to fund the war, but were unwilling to fight itÃ¢â¬ . Third, the Monterrosa led Atlacatl led batallion through American funding descended in El Mozote with Ã¢â¬Å"the latest M-16Ã¢â¬â¢s, M-60 machines guns, 90 millimeter recoilless rifles, and 60- and 81 millimeter mortarsÃ¢â¬ (pg 39) and with a list of names massacred an entire village because Ã¢â¬Å"communism was cancerÃ¢â¬ (pg 49). The U. S. government was clearly responsible for the Massacre at El Mozote because without the funding, supporting, and training of El Salvador troops the war would have been tilted in the guerillas favor as they had managed to hold the disorganized army in certain areas. In contrast to neighboring departments El Mozote and its inhabitants of born-again Christians did not fit in as guerilla sympathizers. In fact, the training at American hands is questionable because the manner in which the massacre is carried with soldiers tying ropes on trees, using machetes, slitting throats of innocent villagers is not a tactic of warfare I believe America utilizes. The Cold War was about ideology and the El Salvador Army believed it was Ã¢â¬Å"killing Salvadorans who were sympathetic to the insurgentsÃ¢â¬ (pg 53). The El Salvador Army with the support of American resources violated the rules of war in killing an entire village Ã¢â¬Å"without trial or investigation, simply because of the political sympathies of some of their numberÃ¢â¬ (pg 53). The killings carried out by the Atlacatl Batallion in El Mozote were not justice but a contravention of Human Rights. The massacre was reported by Washington Post and the New York times as told to them by Rufina Amaya Marquez, a witness of what had occurred at El Mozote. The response by the American government to news of the massacre was first denial and then portrayal of those reports as Ã¢â¬Å"PropagandaÃ¢â¬ by Ã¢â¬Å"journalist advocatesÃ¢â¬ sympathetic to the guerillas cause. As the author notes, the geopolitical stakes in Central America and ensuing debate in congress did not leave the White House many options albeit cable reports and first witness accounts of the massacre in El Mozote and La Joya. According to Howard Lane, the Public Affairs Officer in the Embassy, the American Embassy was well informed as to who was orchestrating the killings especially after the murder of Archbishop Oscar Romero as he said Mass (pg 28). The first reports from radio Venceremos estimated Atlacatl as having Ã¢â¬Å"massacred a thousand peasants and various amlets and villagesÃ¢â¬ (pg 87) but according to Danner the commandates believed Ã¢â¬Å"that many hundreds had diedÃ¢â¬ (pg 87). The U. S government clearly shares responsibility for the Massacre at El Mozote because as the author notes Ã¢â¬Ëit was congress that voted the money that paid for the American guns and helicopters and military advisersÃ¢â¬ (pg 90) with the false pretense of putting an end Ã¢â¬Å"tort ure and murder of Salvadoran CitizensÃ¢â¬ (pg 90) with the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. I believe the American response to news of the Massacre as inadequate because of the massive cover-up by both Deane Hinton, The United States Ambassador to El Salvador and White House. Deane Hinton had recently taken up the post and Ã¢â¬Å"Credibility at the embassy was a special concernÃ¢â¬ (pg 116) and according to Greentree, Hinton was Ã¢â¬Å"the guy who sets the standardsÃ¢â¬ (pg 116). Nonetheless, Greentree as junior officer Ã¢â¬Å"provided the reporting that would enable the government to denyÃ¢â¬ the massacre at El Mozote despite his belief that the Embassy was under immense pressure. The Embassy was aware of the massacre but responded to the news of the massacre by suppressing Ã¢â¬Å"what was inconvenientÃ¢â¬ which was the truth of what had happened. As Greentree states, Ã¢â¬Å"the guerillas were trying to make us look as bad as possibleÃ¢â¬ (pg 104). Moreover, on his way back from the refugee camp McKay was of the impression something horrendous had transpired and alluding to Morazan stated Ã¢â¬Å"the fear was overriding and we sensed it and we could tell that that fear was not instilled by the guerillasÃ¢â¬ (pg 108) as proof of a killing had taken place. The justifications given for the cover-up of the massacre by the American Government is akin to being a complicit in the Human Right violations of the villagers of El Mozote. Also, as Danner notes, Ã¢â¬Å"the cable suppliedÃ¢â¬ ¦arguments that they might find useful in impeaching the press accounts of El MozoteÃ¢â¬ (pg 117). The remarks by McKay show the length the U. S. government went to discredit the numbers reported in Washington Times Ã¢â¬Å"as pure Marxist propaganda devoid of foundationÃ¢â¬ (pg 126). The American government could deny any Human Right violations had occurred in the hands of American trained Atlacatl as long as Ã¢â¬Å"the overwhelming number of deaths is never legally accounted for by clear or coherent evidenceÃ¢â¬ (pg 125). In the end, the Human Right organizations, Americas Watch, and Amnesty International reports were attacked, smeared and painted as fabrications Ã¢â¬Å"without historical referenceÃ¢â¬ (pg 124). I am of the believe that Congress and White House under the leadership of President Ronald Reagan did not want to be seen as losing the Cold War with RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s recent foray into Afghanistan. As a result Congress did not scrutinize the Certification the President sent them to show that El Salvador was complying with Ã¢â¬Å"internationally recognized Human RightsÃ¢â¬ and Congress rather than side with the truth shirked its responsibility even when the choice was clear a massacre had occurred at El Mozote.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Review John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men is a touching tale of the friendship between two men set against the backdrop of the United States during the Depression of the 1930s. Subtle in its characterization, the book addresses the real hopes and dreams of working-class America. Steinbecks short novel raises the lives of the poor and dispossessed to a higher, symbolic level. Its powerful ending is climactic and shocking to the extreme. But, we also come to an understanding of the tragedy of life. Regardless of the sufferings of those who live it, life goes on. Of Mice and Men Overview Of Mice and Men opens with two workers who are crossing the country on foot to find work. George is a cynical, irresolute man. George looks after his companion, Lennie, and treats him like a brother. Lennie is a giant man of incredible strength but has a mental disability that makes him slow to learn and almost child-like. George and Lennie had to flee the last town because Lennie touched a womans dress and hed been accused of rape. They begin to work on a ranch, and they share the same dream: they want to own a piece of land and farm for themselves. These people, like George and Lennie, feel dispossessed and unable to control their own lives. The ranch becomes a microcosm of the American underclass at that time. The climactic moment of the novel revolves around Lennies love of soft things. He pets the hair of Curleys wife, but she gets scared. In the resulting struggle, Lennie kills her and runs away. The farmhands form a lynch mob to punish Lennie, but George finds him first. George understands that Lennie cannot live in the world and wants to save him the pain and terror of being lynched, so he shoots him in the back of the head. The literary power of this book rests firmly on the relationship between the two central characters, their friendship and their shared dream. These two men are so very different, but they come together, stay together, and support each other in a world full of people who are destitute and alone. Their brotherhood and fellowship is an achievement of enormous humanity. They sincerely believe in their dream. All they want is a small piece of land that they can call their own. They want to grow their own crops and breed rabbits. That dream cements their relationship and strikes a chord so convincingly for the reader. George and Lennies dream is the American dream. Their desires are both very particular to the 1930s but also universal. Triumph of Friendship Of Mice and Men is a tale of friendship that triumphs over the odds. But, the novel is also extremely telling about the society in which it is set. Without becoming dogmatic or formulaic, the novel examines many of the prejudices at the time: racism, sexism, and prejudice towards those with disabilities. The power of John Steinbecks writing is that he treats these issues in purely human terms. He sees societys prejudices in terms of individual tragedies, and his characters attempt to escape from those prejudices. In a way, Of Mice and Men is an extremely despondent novel. The novel shows the dreams of a small group of people and then contrasts these dreams with a reality that is unreachable, one they cannot achieve. Even though the dream never becomes reality, John Steinbeck does leave us with an optimistic message. George and Lennie do not achieve their dream, but their friendship stands out as a shining example of how people can live and love even in a word of alienation and disconnectedness.
Friday, February 14, 2020
THE STRuggle for the american curriculum - Assignment Example This paper intends to provide a vivid description about the KliebardÃ¢â¬â¢s four interest groups and insight about the organization, which are sorted out by the four groups. Furthermore, the study also reflects about the socio-political and the economic factors, which greatly influence the organization being sorted. Correspondingly the paper further compares and contrasts about DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s notions about the organization of the curriculum. Kliebard Four Interest group of American Curriculum Theory American curriculum theory signifies a hypothetical correlation keen to inspecting and affecting educational programs. Each of the interest groups embodies strength for an altered selection of knowledge and values adapted from the culture and different curriculum. Kliebard basically identifies four interest groups in the struggle to control or modify the subject organization of the American curriculum. The name of the interest groups are humanist (mental disciplinarians), social efficie ncy, child study (develop mentalist), and social meliorates (Kliebard, 2004). Concerning the historical data in the year 1890s, the theory related to mental discipline or humanist believed in the abilities of the students to develop psychological reasoning. Furthermore, it has also been observed that in this particular group the education system was not planned for social improvements in itself but for the systematic progress of mental power. The humanists viewed schools as instruments for taking the traditional values, susceptibilities, and cultural acmes that has been associated with the Western civilization. Although it formerly justified this large- skills curriculum the best process to train mental facilities. In this era humanists have maintained old-style subjects on the basis of their intrinsic value as carriers of cultural tradition. The second group based its knowledge on the evolving study of child development, which controlled them to reject faculty psychology and provid ed an insight that effective training must be provided to children with diversified learning capabilities and competencies at different levels of growth stages. This group requires a child-centered program that would plan not only to match the skills of children at each stage but also to excite their interest and motivate them towards the curriculum. Another group reflects Social meliorism which believes that study is a tool to change society for betterment. This tool is based on the power of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectuality and the skills to improve through education. The future of the people is not fixed by gender, heredity, socio-economic status or any other issues (Kliebard, 2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Social efficiency educatorsÃ¢â¬ were directing to design a curriculum that would improve the social value of each individual in the society. This theory believes that society could be organized by the effective application of the AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s curriculum. Students should know their ro le within the societal context. This theory introduces high and vocational schools for the students and also introduces learning activities, which will assist in overall societal development. The effective curriculum for the society will inculcate smaller strategies for establishing advance learning concept for the society to grow (Kliebard, 2004).